Vuillermoz was a fellow student of Ravel in Fauré's composition class, and remained friends with him throughout his life. He went on to become a music critic, working for the newspaper Le Temps for a time. He also organised the first performance of Ma mère l'oye in April 1910.
Vuillermoz wrote a number of articles about Ravel, and after the latter's death he contributed a substantial review of the composer's work to the memorial volume published by some of his friends in 1939, Maurice Ravel par quelques-uns de ses familiers (Colette, et al. ).
Vuillermoz was also one of the first to engage in serious film criticism, and to recognise the cinema as an independant art. From late 1916, he wrote a regular film review column in Le Temps, and became a contributor to other film journals in the 1920s, such as Cinémagazine and Cinéa. In 1924 he was a member of a commission which organised the first important exhibition on film at the Musée Galliera, "L'Exposition de l'art dans le cinéma franšais". In 1937 he was credited as "Directeur d'orchestre" for the music in Jean Renoir's film La grande illusion.
Among his later writings were books about Chopin, Fauré, and Debussy.